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DefinitionEdit

Round Robin DNS Load Balancing (also known as fast-flux) is a technique where a DNS server rotates which of several server IP addresses is to be used. It holds a list of IP addresses, and provides a different one for each successive request, returning to the first on the list after the last has been provided.

Strictly speaking, round robin is a load splitting technique, rather than load balancing.

How to recognize itEdit

The simplest way to spot a round robin DNS is if you do periodic lookups of a group of nameservers and see that the IP addresses of the nameservers change frequently, some may be as frequent as 30 seconds between rotations, but typically they cycle at a rate of between 10 minutes and one day. See examples at SexyFriends and Premier Pharmacy.

Why it is usedEdit

The main purpose of using this technique is to balance the load on the nameservers by distributing requests of the domain to numerous geographically-separated servers. This way, in the event that there is a huge demand for the nameserver, the demand will be spread out over time among the various servers, rather than just one.


In addition to assuring a better load distribution, an additional benefit for spammers is that it makes blacklisting more difficult, as the IP addresses are in constant flux (see fast-flux).


Where are the servers?Edit

In the case of spam or botnets, the servers used in this scheme are frequently hijacked hosts.

ExamplesEdit

Some nameservers that are using (or that have been seen to use) this technique are:

{ns1., ns2., ns3., ns4., ns5.}alltigersmine.net
{ns1., ns2., ns3., ns4., ns5.}gjgutjk.info
ns1.vtmcod.com
{ns01., ns02., ns03., ns04., ns05., ns06., ns07., ns08., ns09., ns10., ns11., ns12.}freenfltracker.com (part of the Storm Worm Attack)

Additional readingEdit

  1. Wikipedia definition
  2. Load balancing explained
  3. Webopedia definition

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